Dr. Arnd Bernaerts 

Climate Change: By Two Major Naval Wars

USA: https://www.amazon.com/dp/1949872718          Paperback: US$ 8,99 // €  9,22      -June 2022-       Kindle: US$  3,99, // € 3,83   //   DE: https://www.amazon.de/dp/1949872718

HOME, ToC   A1, A2, A3, B, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, D, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E6, F, G1, G2, G3, H, I, J, K-pdf, L-pdf      


By Dieter E. Koop, Oceanographer.














Foreword by Dieter Koop

Table of Contents  

NOTE: The page numbers of the 1st Edition 2012
and the June 2022 Edition are different.

A. A Guide to understand climate change  (Book pages 1-12)

A1. Introduction to climate change and man’s contribution (p. 1-2)     (in: PDF)

A2. The experts who do not see a war (p. 3ff)    (in: PDF)
a. Sensational observations at Kew Observatory  #  b. Stockholm - Bingo! Three-winter record!  #  c. At the Centre of Marine Meteorology, but….?  #  d.  Cold and Special - Winter 1939/40  #  e. The biggest forecasting flop ever  #  f. Describing winter weather – without searching for causes  #  g. A lasting secret? The cut-off low pressure areas. Winter 1941/42  #  h. Cyclone density changes during the war?  # i. The El Niño didn’t make the harsh war winters.
# Temperature Map TM1 (page 5)

 A3. Man made climate – since 1850 (p. 3-12)    (in: PDF)
Can people alter weather and climate?  #  b. Where do we stand?  #  c. What should we look at? Anthropogenic ocean use!  #  d. Two world wars - two climatic changes  #  e. Comments concerning the terms "weather" and "climate"  # f. Further remarks. 
                                # Temperature Map TM2 (page 15)

B. A three year cold package. - Providing evidence?  (Page 13-42) (in: PDF)

a. Introduction  #  b. Warm & warmer – The situation prior to the WWII  #  c. Time witnesses see a lot, but understand little  #  d. Great Britain in rough seas  #  e. A power that turns the Baltic into ice  #  f. Three sea ice years in succession   #  g. A thriller about the cold – But science is ignorant  #  h. Europe cold vs. Globe warm; 1940-1942 - A summary,  
                                                # Temperature Map TM3 (page 25)

 C. Winter 1939/40   (Page 43-104)

C1.  War brings ice age back (p.  43-46 ), # Temperature Map TM4 (page 45)  (in: PDF)

C2.  Records, Records, Records – Introduction to the unexpected  (p.  47-50) (in: PDF)
a. In Focus  # 
b. Temperature  #  c. More remarkable weather events  #  d. Conclusion 

 C3.  War at sea 1939 - Facts and events  (p. 51-56 )      (in: PDF)
a. Introduction  #  b. The military strength in general  #  c. Total Naval war, and weather in opposition  #  d. Conclusion

 C4. The sky cries because of the war? Dry, Rain, Cold! (p. 57-66)      (in: PDF)
Why talk about rain? An Introduction  #  b. Does war make rain?  #  c. The factor of rain prior to winter 1939/40  #  d. Did the war show an effect in the U.S. in autumn 1939 and January 1940?  #  e. Natural variation?  # f. Is it possible to establish a connection with the war?  #  g. The findings until now can be summarized as follows:                                                  # Temperature Map TM5 (page 59)  

C5 Jet stream blocked by naval combat? (p. 67-74)     (in: PDF)
a. Air flow blocked – Understood? – An introduction  #  b. The first days and the cyclone in the German Bight  #  c. Blocking observed but not understood  #
d. Not competent enough to read the wind? #  e. The whole winter season affected  #  f. How R. Scherhag rated December 1939  #  g. An anthropogenic contribution to the preparation of a record winter
Temperature Map TM6 (page 69)

C6 The weather attacked in the Winter War: Russia vs. Finland   (p.  75-78)  (in: PDF)
a. Overview –When Russia went west   #  b.  Military overview 
; The New York Times reported   #  c. Weather summary  #  d. Winter War on land and in the air - Summary  

C7. The evidence in the ice of the Baltic Sea (p. 79-90)     (in: PDF)
a. An Overview – The numerous aspects to discuss  #  b. The icing condition, start, intensity, and duration in a brief view  #  c. Assault at the Bay of Gdansk starts an extraordinary ice season  #  d. Loss of heat by shells and anthropogenic forcing  # e. From Kiel to Gdansk the Kriegsmarine churned the sea  #  f. The Scandinavian in action and the Kattegat   # 
g. The Skagerrak on the edge  #  h. The German Bight and the sea ice  # i. How the navies prevented early icing in the Gulf of Finland   #  j. Randomly excluded

C8  From the North Sea to the Atlantic (p. 91-100)     (in: PDF)
a. Could early questions have minimised the worst?  #  b. The naval war situation around the UK   # c. Activities around southern England   # d. Cooling the North Sea a matter to reckon with  #  e. War theater in the North Sea   #  f. The west wind aisle mutates to a cold corridor  
                                             # Temperature Map TM7 (page 93)

C9.  Finally on the first war winter (p. 101-104)     (in: PDF)
a.  Factors & non-factors  #  b. From one autumn to the next  #  c.  From low to heavy ice cover in the Baltic  #  d. The sudden end to a two decade increased warming  # f. Summary

D.  Winter 1940/41 a climatic research delight (Page 105 - 122)     (in: PDF)
a.  Bad boys in navy blue and climate experts without a clou?  #  b.
Meteorological Situation  in Northern Europe    # c. Did the Skagerrak play a special role?  #  d. How deep could naval warfare penetrate?  #  e. The sea ice winter 1940/41  #  f. Summing up a winter of scientific delight  
Temperature Map TM8 (page 109)

 E. The War Winter 1941/42 (Page 123 - 154)

E1.  Did naval war stop Adolf Hitler before Moscow ? (p.  123-128)    (in: PDF)
a.  A "lightning war" (blitzkrieg) collapses in early December 1941  #  b.  An overview of Naval Battlefields and weather deviation  # 
c. Did the winter commence early?  #  d. Curiosity or what happened at Malgoviks primary school in Lappland/Sweden?  #  e. Early sea ice?  #  f. What made the winter of 1941/42 so severe? 
Temperature Map TM9 (page 125)

E2  “Barbarossa“ & its appendix, - The naval war in the Baltic (p. 129-134)   (in: PDF)
a. Don’t ask what the weather has done to the war, but what the war has done to the weather!  #  b. The Failure of the land and air offensive  #  c. The naval arm of ‘Barbarossa’ in the Baltic 

 E3   When the weather broke down along the Eastern Front (p. 135-140)    (in: PDF)
a. The forecast  #  b.  A Russian account  #  c.  Further Details  #  d. What else need science to get serious – The Tallinn case!  # 
e. Six months deviation  #  f. Three months deviation

 E4  The winter of 1941/42 (p.  141-148)       (in: PDF)
a. What does one need to know?  #  b. Great Britain ’s weather  #  c. Germany   #  d. Denmark   #  e. Finland   # f. Sweden   # g. A cold air pool on visit  # h. Consideration                                                     #Temperature Map TM10 (page 143 )

 E5 What evidence does sea ice offer in the Baltic (p. 149-152)      (in: PDF) 
a. What to look for?  #  b. The Danish ice report (excerpts)  #  c. The Swedish ice report by G. Liljequist (excerpts)  #  d. The Finish ice observer Erkki Palosuo  #  e. Discussion

 E6  Summary: Easy climate research with the winter 1941/42 (p. 153-154)   (in: PDF)

 F. Any role of El Niño? (Page 155 - 160)     (in: PDF)
a. Asking the right question?  # b. What are the facts?  # 
c. El Niño thesis is superficial  # d. How reliable are the temperature data to establish an El Niño?  # e. Items to be considered  #  f. These observations and the Brönnimann thesis  #  g. Conclusion 
  # Temperature Map TM11 (page 157)

 G. Global Cooling from 1940-1970 (Page 161 - 176)

G1.  An Atlantic matter?  (p. 161-168)    (in: PDF)
a. A settled issue?  #  b. How global cooling was discussed first  #  c. What are David Thompson et al. talking about?  #  d. The time matters  #  e. Too curious? Or, towards new thinking with the jellyfish?
                                              # Temperature Map TM12 (page 163 )

G2 What does the ‘ Battle of the Atlantic ’ mean to the marine environment? (p. 169-172)       (in: PDF)
a. Introduction to WWII Atlantic matters  #  b. Physical stress to the Atlantic ?  #  c. For example: Atlantic Convoys  #  d. The chapter air planes in naval warfare matter  #  e. German/Axis U-boats  #  f. Atlantic Sea Mines  #  g. Arctic Convoys  # h. Total Allies loss

G3  Discussing the kick off to global cooling (p.  173-176)   (in: PDF)
a.  The North Atlantic is not the only but the dominant factor  # 
b. The Sea Surface Temperature issue  #  c.  What can NAO tell?  #  d.  A link between the North Atlantic and Europe ?  #  e.   The temperature-drop issue  # f. Summery remarks

 H.  Pacific War, 1942-1945, contributing to Global Cooling? ( Page 177 - 188)  (in: PDF)

a Introduction  # b. The Pacific War  # c.  A cold winter in Japan 1944/45 only due to natural variation?  # d. The regional extent of the cold winter  #  e. Coldest May & July on record – The data 1945  #  f. A clue from SST and correlation?  # g. The Shift in the Pacific – mid 1940s –?   #  h. Interpreting the PDO record  #  i. Discussion and Summary
                                               # Temperature Map TM13 (page 181)

I.  Warming before Cooling – The trace to the First World (Page 189 - 200)  
(in: PDF)

a.   A WWI ended with a Climatic Jump  #
b.  A big naval war, and a big temperature shift in the Arctic  #  c. Conclusion  
Temperature Map TM14 (page 191)

 J. Results: (Page 203 - 210)  (in: PDF)

K. Reference (Page 211-219)



L. Index – Images (Page 220 - 224)

PDF about 15 MB

About the author
Dr. Arnd Bernaerts

Climate Change:
By Two Major Naval Wars

Cosmo Publishing,, 27. Juni 2022) ‎ Englih, 307 Pages  ,

US: https://www.amazon.com/dp/1949872718   

 Paperback: US$ 8,99 //   9,22      -       Kindle: US$  3,99, // € 3,83 


A reprint of the Book-2012 edition


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